Tuesday, 29 January 2013

Lit review - Chua Tuan Jin (12)

The review is related to the research because it will help us to find the opinions singaporeans have towards drinking NEWater. Also, we can find tips on how to represent our data once we finish the research. I will be discussing the point of this research and why we are doing it. 

We are doing research on the opinions of singaporeans have about drinking NEWater as some may be quite skeptical drinking water from their own toilet bowl and rain water. They may be angry with Singapore’s government. 

From one website, I have gathered that NEWater is an efficient way of managing water resources in Singapore, since Singapore have little natural resources, but yet, the reusing of resources factor has been associated with people being disgusted with it thinking that it is very unhygienic. Hence, this common cited factor of disgust towards NEWater had been a difficult obstacle to NEWater. However, there are agreements among some water experts that the lack of water is not of poor governance, but physical lack. When NEWater just started construction, and many people violently objected to it, as they thought recycle water was dirty and might cause diseases. [Ching, 2010]

In a website, it was titled, ‘Would you drink this water’ and in the first few paragraphs it emphasized that the water does not come from springs but from the toilet bowl and yet the writer praised NEWater that that it is a new water-treatment system. It can filter out microscopic bacteria and by the time the wastewater is processed, the clean water meets all the drinking-water standards specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the World Health Organization. However, the writer mostly did not like something like NEWater in his/her home country, America, as the writer and other americans so not fancy the thought of drinking their own waste water. Yet, the writer also feels that this technology can save many lives as 20% of the world do not have clean water to drink and 400 children per hour is dying from water-borne diseases. [Pikul, 2004]

In another website, the writer found it ridiculous for the Singapore government to want they voters to drink treated waste water. The government did the NEWater campaign very carefully to ensure the water was safe to drink. Since, NEWater was the fourth national tap, besides importing water from Malaysia, running desalination plants, and collecting rainfall through storm-water harvesting. The government know that there was going to be a lot of psychological resistance to NEWater and they knew that they had to send more than a statement of ‘Its safe to drink’ but rather to pitch a message to the country. [Sydney Morning Herald, 2008]

In a particular article, it was written that cleaned-up sewage water is nobody’s first choice for drinking water, but yet, in Singapore, the NEWater plant has became a destination for tourists and citizens. The majority of the public has accepted the concept of drinking treated sewage water as it is cleaned up properly and then blended with reservoir water, giving the NEWater water the ‘water’ taste that people have come to recognize. Since the technology of recycling water has existed for decades, the citizens, PRs and work permit holders trust NEWater more. [Galbraith, 2012]

This is my literature review on the opinions of Singaporeans drinking NEWater.

Leong Ching. (2010). Eliminating ‘Yuck’: A Simple Exposition
of Media and Social Change in Water Reuse Policies. Retrieved from http://www.spp.nus.edu.sg/docs/Asiasia/2011/Leong_Ching-Eliminating-Yuck.pdf
Corrie Pikul. (2004). Would you drink this water?. Retrieved from http://www.salon.com/2004/10/22/big_idea_10_22/
The Sydney Morning Herald. (2008). Treated sewage as water? They'll drink to that. Retrieved from http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/treated-sewage-as-water-theyll-drink-to-that/2008/06/26/1214472673486.html
Kate Galbraith. (2012). Taking the Ick Factor Out of Recycled Water. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/26/business/global/26iht-green26.html?_r=0

Done By: Chua Tuan Jin (12)
Class: S2-07

Tuesday, 22 January 2013

Literature Review - V. Divya Asritha (10)

I am Vaddadi Divya Asritha and this is my Literature Review. Our research is on the attitudes and perspectives of people towards NEWater. 

What is NEWater?
With the Singaporean population growing everyday,there is a need to find alternative to satisfy the human's needs and that is NEWater.
It is a high-grade reclaimed water that has been purified with advanced membrane and ultraviolet technologies. NEWater is ultra-clean; it has passed more than 30,000 scientific tests and surpasses the World Health Organization's requirements for safe drinking water. It is the third "tap" in the "Four National Taps" strategy to provide Singapore with a sustainable and diversified supply of water. The other three taps are water from local catchments, imported water from Malaysia and desalinated water. NEWater is expected to meet 40% of Singapore's water needs by 2020. (Lim, 2010)

Attitudes of people towards NEWater:
To some people, the idea of drinking recycled sewage is akin to eating cockroach-chip ice cream—unthinkable, even if shown to be safe.

There were some reports that had negative tones or opinions about recycled water. Many of the reports were related to how NEWater would affect bilateral relations with Malaysia. Politicians in Malaysia took pot-shots at NEWater, warning their people that the water in Singapore could be unclean and even suggesting that Malaysia should sell sewage and not water to Singapore. 

 Opinion polls were conducted in Queenstown. The results showed that many Queenslanders felt uncomfortable drinking water that came from sewage and industrial waste. (Ching, 2010)

Although reclaiming the water is good,there are also some advantages and disadvantages of NEWater.The first advantage of NEWater is that it help to reduce Singapore's dependence on other countries for imported water.This means that Singapore does not solely depend on Malaysia for water and even if Malaysia were to terminate their Water Contract with Singapore one day,Singapore would not be affected much.The Second advantage is that NEWater helps to maximise the use of water on Earth.Through recycling the water,it helps to maximise the use of resources left on the Earth to ensure that there are sufficent supply to last the future generations.The third advantage of NEWater is that it helps to save space and it is energy efficent which means that money would not be wasted in the process.

The first disadvantage of NEWater is that it is very expensive.It requires a lot of processes to obtain the NEWater which means that a lot of money would have to be spend.The product itself is costly which means that if it was to be sold in supermarkets,it would not be cheap and not many people would be able to afford it.The second disadvantage is that not many Singaporeans are used to the NEWater yet.Most of the Singaporeans are still used to the imported water from Malaysia and it would take a period of time before they get used to the NEWater. The third reason is that many Singaporeans don’t fancy the idea of drinking processed sewage water. (Xinyi, 2010)

Jean Lim. (2010). NEWater. Retrieved from http://infopedia.nl.sg/articles/SIP_1555_2009-08-11.html
Leong Ching (2010). Eliminating ‘Yuck’: A Simple Exposition of Media and Social Change in Water
Reuse Policies (Water Resources Development). Retrieved from http://www.spp.nus.edu.sg/docs/Asiasia/2011/Leong_Ching-Eliminating-Yuck.pdf
Xinyi. (2010, May 7). NEWater(Pros and Cons). Message posted to http://x3pureelement.blogspot.sg/2010/05/newaterpros-and-cons.html

Monday, 21 January 2013

Literature Review- Wong Kang Zhi (24)

Literature Review

What is NEWater 

NEWater is high-grade reclaimed water produced from treated used water that is purified further using advanced membrane technologies, making the water ultra-clean and safe to drink.
NEWater has passed more than 65,000 scientific tests and surpasses World Health Organisation requirements. (PUB, 17 January 2012)

People’s perception towards NEWater

There is actually a survey done after newater was launched. That survey showed a very high level of acceptance. More than 90% of the people polled actually said that they have no problem with newater. (Radio Feature, unknown date)

There was a strong acceptance of NEWater by the public and 60,000 Singaporeans toasted to NEWater at 2002 National Day Parade. An independent survey by Forbes Research at the end of 2002 confirmed the success of the programme. There was a 98% acceptance rate, with 82% of respondents indicating that they would drink NEWater directly and another 16% would drink it mixed with reservoir water. (Madhavan, unknown date)


(George Madhavan, unknown date). Beyond Tap Water: NEWater wins Public Confidence in Singapore, page 22. http://www.jwwa.or.jp/english/kaigai_shiryou/IWA_workshop_6th_2-5.pdf

(PUB, 17 January 2012). NEWater Technology: NEWater is Reverse Osmosis Water. http://www.pub.gov.sg/water/newater/newatertech/Pages/default.aspx

(Radio Feature, unknown date). Radio Feature 4: Singapore: NEWater. http://www.amic.org.sg/new/adb/radio/4-NEWater.pdf

Gantt Chart

This is the gantt chart that we intend to follow throughout our whole IRS Course. :)

Monday, 7 January 2013


Chua Tuan Jin - Group Leader
Wong Kang Zhi - Blog Manager/ Public Relations Manager
Itmam Azwad -  Secretary
Divya Asritha - Schedule manager

Chua Tuan Jin (Group Leader) - Oversee the whole project, give advise to others according to their roles
Wong Kang Zhi (Blog Manager/ Public Relations Manager) - Communicate with others through the blog
Itmam Azwad (Secretary) - Take weekly notes on discussion
Divya Asritha (Schedule manager) - Time management